Smps Power Supply Switch mode power supplies Smps are used in a range of applications as an efficient and effective source of power. This is in major part to their efficiency. For anybody still working on a desktop, look for the fan output in the central processing units Cpu That’s where the Smps is, Smps offers advantages in terms of size, weight, cost, efficiency and overall performance. These have become an accepted part of electronics gadgets. Basically it is a device in which energy conversion and regulation is provided by power semiconductors that are continuously switching “on” and “off” with high frequency
The different kinds The primary power received from AC main is rectified and filtered as high voltage DC. It is then switched at a huge rate of speed and fed to the primary side of the step-down transformer. The step-down transformer is only a fraction of the size of a comparable 50 Hz unit thus relieving the size and weight problems. We have the filtered and rectified output at the secondary side of the transformer. It is now sent to the output of the power supply. A sample of this output is sent back to the switch to control the output voltage, In a forward converter the choke carries the current when the transistor is conducting as well as when it’s not. The diode carries the current during the OFF period of the transistor. Therefore, energy flows into the load during both the periods. The choke stores energy during the ON period and also passes some energy into the output load., In a flyback converter, the magnetic field of the inductor stores energy during the ON period of the switch. The energy is emptied into the output voltage circuit when the switch is in the open state. The duty cycle determines the output voltage, This is the most simple and basic converter based on the flyback principle.During the conduction time of the switching transistor, the current through the transformer primary starts ramping up linearly with the slope equal to VinLp. The voltage induced in the secondary winding and the feedback winding make the fast recovery rectifier reverse biased and hold the conducting transistor ON. When the primary current reaches a peak value Ip, where the core begins to saturate, the current tends to rise very sharply. This sharp rise in current cannot be supported by the fixed base drive provided by the feedback winding. As a result, the switching begins to come out of saturation, A switching regulator does the regulation in the SMPS. A series switching element turns the current supply to a smoothing capacitor on and off. The voltage on the capacitor controls the time the series element is turned. The continuous switching of the capacitor maintains the voltage at the required level, AC power first passes through fuses and a line filter. Then it is rectified by a full-wave bridge rectifier. The rectified voltage is next applied to the power factor correction Pfc pre-regulator followed by the downstream Dc to Dc converter, Most computers and small appliances use International Electrotechnical Commission Iec style input connector. As for output connectors and pinouts, except for some industries, such as Pc and compact Pci, in general they are not standardized and are left up to the manufacturer, Like every electronic gadget, Smps also involve some active and some passive components. And like every of those gadgets, it has it’s own advantages and disadvantages.Let’s start with why you should go for a SMPS, The switching action means the series regulator element is either on or off. Very high efficiency levels are achieved as very little energy us dissipated as heat., As a result of the high efficiency and low levels of heat dissipation, the switch mode power supplies can be compact, Switch mode power supply technology also provide high efficiency voltage conversions in voltage step up or “Boost” applications and step down or Buck applications, The transient spikes due to the switching action can migrate into other areas of the circuits if not properly filtered. These can cause electromagnetic or RF interference affecting other nearby items of electronic equipment, particularly if they receive radio signals.To ensure that a SMPS performs as per the required specification can be a bit difficult. The ripple and interference levels are particularly tricky, The costs of a switch mode power supply is calculates before designing or using one. Additional filtering further adds to the cost.
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D.C. to D.C. converters and D.C. to A.C. To Dc Converters belong to the category of Switched Mode Power Supplies (SMPS). The various types of voltage regulators, used in Linear Power Supplies (LPS), fall in the category of dissipative regulator, as they have a voltage control element usually transistor or zener diode which dissipates power equal to the voltage difference between an unregulated input voltage and a fixed supply voltage multiplied by the current flowing through it. The switching regulator acts as a continuously variable power converter and hence its efficiency is negligibly affected by the voltage difference. Hence the switching regulator is also known as ‘non-dissipative regulator’. In a SMPS, the active device that provides regulation is always operated in cut-off or in saturation mode, The input D.C. Supply is chopped at a higher frequency around 15 to 50 kHz using an active device like the BJT, power MOSFET or SCR and the converter transformer. Here the size of the ferrite core reduces inversely with the frequency. The lower limit is around 5 kHz for silent operation and an upper limit of 50 kHz to limit the losses in the choke and in active switching elements. The transformed wave form is rectified and filtered. A sample of the output voltage is used as the feedback signal for the drive circuit for the switching transistor to achieve regulation.